ISSN 2076-8462

 

Pest-Management # 1(129)/2024



 

April 25 is World Malaria Day

 

The date on the history of the disease «malaria» including from the 18-th century until 2022, on the pathogens of malaria and their carriers-mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, the occurrence of epidemics and pathogens from about the importations of pathogen from abroad, about «airfield malaria» and ways of suppressing flying insect, especially mosquitoes in the salons of airplanes in the presence of passengers.

 

Keywords: malaria, pathogens of malaria, carriers-mosquitoes Anopheles, insecticide

 

pages 5-9


INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES


 

Pathogenic saprophytes and sapronoses

 

Makarov V.V., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor

e-mail: vvm-39@mail.ru

FSBI «Veterinary Center», 129344, Moscow, st. Letchika Babushkina, 20

 

The message is dedicated to diseases caused by microbes that can multiply outside the body in the external environment, which is their habitat. Archaic ideas regarding the driving forces of the epizootic process, which still dominate in domestic veterinary medicine, exclude the participation of free-living non-parasitic saprophytic microbes in the emergence and spread of infectious diseases as a source of infection; the problem is practically not studied or discussed. At the same time, thanks to the results of research and theoretical generalizations (V.I. Terskikh, G.P. Somov, V.Yu. Litvin, A.B. Belov, etc.), the new branch of infectology not only received sufficient development in epidemiology, but and is accepted by international science and practice at the WHO level. The information provided on the problem concerns the general definition of saprophytism of pathogenic bacteria, etiology, nosology, pathology and pathogenesis, epizootology of sapronoses of veterinary significance, features of the tactics of preventive and anti-epizootic work.

 

Keywords: saprophytes, sapronoses, etiology, nosology, epizootology

 

pages 10-19


THE PROBLEMS OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY


 

Insect resistance to pesticides

 

 

 

Mordkovich Ya.B., Baranova L.I., Karashaeva A.S.

 

e-mail: baranova_lubov@vniikr.ru

 

Federal State Budgetary Institution «All-Russian Center for Plant Quarantine», 140150, Moscow region, Ramensky district, Bykovo district, Pogranichnaya street, building 32

 

 

 

The article is devoted to the development of increased resistance to pesticides in insects. This problem affects many countries both in the field of agricultural and household pest control. Agricultural pests develop resistance to organophosphate pesticides as well as fumigants. Household pests are resistant to organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid drugs. Currently, the problem is being solved by rotating medications.

 

 

 

pages 20-23


THE PROBLEMS OF APPLIED ZOOLOGY


 

Red vole of the Omsk region: territorial distribution and features of number movement

 

Sidorova D.G. 1, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Associate Professor e-mail: dashunia_g.s@mail.ru, Kassal B.Yu. 2, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, Associate Professor, e-mail: BY.Kassal@mail.ru,

Sidorov G.N. 3, 4, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, e-mail: g.n.sidorov@mail.ru

 

1 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Omsk State Agrarian University named after. P.A. Stolypina, 644008 Russia Omsk, Institutskaya pl., 1

2 SBI Russian Geographical Society, Omsk regional branch, 644099 Russia, Omsk, st. Museum, 3

3 Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Omsk State Pedagogical University, 644099, Russia, Omsk, Tukhachevsky embankment, 14

4 FGBNU Scientific Research Institute of Natural Focal Infections, 644080, Russia, Omsk, pr. Mira, 7

 

During the period from 1962 to 2023. In 32 municipal districts of the Omsk region, censuses of the number of small mammals were carried out. 664 thousand trap-days were worked and 54,145 thousand individuals of small mammals were caught, including 15,4 thousand red-backed voles. During the summer period 1962–2023. The long-term average absolute number of red-backed voles was 141 million 140 thousand individuals. The share of rodents in small mammal catches is estimated at 28.4%. The longterm average abundance index for the studied period was equal to 2.50 individuals per 100 trap-days. The average annual vole population density over the past 62 years has been 1000 individuals per km2. Cartograms of rodent population density were compiled during the years of its average long-term maximum (more than 4000 individuals/km2), average (2001–4000 individuals/km2) and depression (up to 2000 individuals/km2) on the territory of all 32 municipal districts of the region. A weak correlation between the vole population dynamics and solar activity indicators was established (p <0.05, r=0.23); a medium relationship was found (p <0.05, r=0.72) with periods of water availability, and with water levels in rivers, lakes and wetlands (p <0.05, r=0.45). An 11-year cycle of increasing species abundance during periods of decreased solar activity was revealed. Studying the red-backed vole population is necessary to preserve natural ecosystems, to conduct economic activities in hunting and agriculture in the region, to ensure public health when monitoring natural focal infections and invasions.

 

Keywords: red-backed vole, abundance, cyclicity, Omsk region

 

pages 24-31


FORMULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES


 

Harmonization of the definition of insecticidal substances for the purposes of production control and monitoring of finished compositions. VI. Aerosol products.

 

 

 

A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (31-4, Leninsky pr., Moscow, 119071, Russia), MIREA – Russian Technological University (86, Vernadskogo Pr., Moscow 119571, Russia),

 

E-mail: kochchem@mail.ru., ResearherID 213376. ORCID ID 0000-0002-1911-1718.

 

 

 

The issues of analytical determination of aerosol compositions used as repellent, insect-repellent, acaricidal and insect-acaricidal agents are considered. The specificity of the substances leads to significant restrictions on the choice of the analytical method. The main method is HPLC, whereas the use of HPLC is limited due to the low spectral characteristics of substances. Traditionally, the HPLC method also demonstrates a better separation of isomers of active substances (pyrethroid insecticides), which, in addition, is an advantage relative to the HPLC method. The isomer composition can be used to evaluate suppliers of substances and identify counterfeit products. The data on the analysis of 7 real compositions containing N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), dimethyl phthalate, tetramethrin, cypermethrin, alphacypermethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, d-phenothrin are presented. All the substances considered are determined by the HPLC method in the joint presence, whereas significant difficulties must be overcome to determine them simultaneously by the HPLC method. The aspects of sampling and sample preparation preceding the stage of chromatographic determination are considered. The information on the analytical determination of aerosol products complements the previously given data on other basic formulations and is of interest to specialists engaged in the production and control of products in the field of «pest control».

 

 

Keywords: insecticidal substances, content determination, «pest control», active substance, pyrethroids, synergists, GC, alfa-cypermethrin, tetramethrin, d-phenothrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), dimethyl phthalate, cypermethrin, aerosol agent, repellent

 

 

pages 32-40