Pest-Management № 3 (103)/2017
The Q fever in the Astrakhan region: current realities of epidemiology and clinics
Karpenko S.F., Galimzyanov H.M., Arakelyan R.S.
Federal State budget educational institution of higher «Astrakhan State Medical University» of the RF Ministry of Health, 414000 Russia, Astrakhan, ul. Bakinskaya, 121
In the scientific article the authors describe the epidemiological characteristics of fever Q in the Astrakhan region, paying attention to gender, age, occupation and place of residence. Fever Q are more often registered at men. In modern conditions in comparison with data of ten years' prescription began to be observed more often in 4,3 times alimentary and in 1,7 times vectorborne transmission of Coxiella burnetii. In modern conditions at fever Q hepatitis development is observed at each 5th patient, and the pneumonia is marked at each 22nd patient.
Keywords: fever Q, sex, age, hepatitis, pneumonia.
Modern aspects of the state of hemostasis in the West Nile fever
Mirekina E. V., Candidate of Medical Sciences,
Galimzyanov H.M., doctor of medical sciences,
Astrakhan State Medical University. ul. Bakinskaya, 121, Astrakhan, 414000
The study of modern aspects of hemostasis at the present stage with West Nile fever revealed that hemocoagulation disorders, possibly connected with imbalance of the primary link of hemostasis, play a decisive role in the development of the infectious process.
Keywords: hemostasis, West Nile fever, arboviruses, microcirculation, vessels, thrombocytopenia,
experiment, immunohistology, dystrophy, necrosis.
Modern ways to control pest ants: a review
Kostina M. N., Grand PhD in Biological Sciences, Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute (Moscow)
In this review, literature sources focused on various species of ants inhabiting the premises of objects of different categories (houses, medical organizations, public catering establishments), polluting the food, and posing the epidemiological danger have been analyzed. Modern ways of control of these ants on the objects of abovementioned categories are considered. Data on species living in natural conditions, including the territory of private households, causing damage to agricultural land and on personal plots are presented.
Keywords: ants, biological features, epidemiological risk, economic loss, methods and ways of ant control.
Notes from the 11th European Vertebrate Pest Management Conference (Warsaw, Poland), September 25-29, 2017
Mironova T.A., Shekarova O.N.
(A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the RAS, Moscow, Russia)
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com)
The European Vertebrate Pest Management Conference was organized by the Warsaw University of Life Sciences and took place from 25th September to 29st September in Warsaw, Poland. The scientists from the following countries: Poland, Germany, Finland, Britain, France, Belgium, Denmark, Czech Republic, Spain, Pakistan, India, Turkey, Austria, Russia, Israel, Serbia, Switzerland, Scotland and Hungary presented their contributions.
The conference covered such areas as ecologically based management of problematic species, urban, agricultural and silvicultural pest management and also the problems of human - animal social conflict (with wild boar, deer, foxes, martens, primates, etc.) within the boundaries of settlements. The most relevant were studies on the rodenticidal effects of anticoagulants (coumarin and indandione compounds) on rodents, including long-term effects in the form of the emergence of genetic resistance to poisons. In different parts of Europe the VKORC1 gene mutations, responsible for rodent resistance to anticoagulants were revealed in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus), black rats (Rattus rattus) and house mice (Mus musculus). Brown rat resistance to first generation anticoagulant rodenticides / FGARs /, caused by some of these mutations, e.g., Y139S, can be overcome by using bromadiolone and difenacoum, the less toxic compounds of the second generation anticoagulant rodenticides /SGARs/. Some mutations, for example, Y139F and Y139C (the most common mutations in Western Europe, their frequency reaches 40-50% of the entire rodent population in some countries), cause high-level resistance and can be overcome only with the help of more toxic SGARs: brodifacoum, flocoumafen and difethialone. In some cases, the authors recommend to replace anticoagulants by acute poisons or to use mechanical devices that in contradistinction to poisons do not pollute the environment. In different countries of Europe, the rotation patterns of anticoagulants of the first, the second generation, and acute poisons, differ depending on the frequency and distribution of VKORC1 gene alleles. It is obvious that the permanent genetic monitoring of target rodent species and the identification of resistant populations is the basis for a modern strategy and tactics to problematic species control. At the conference, some large European chemical companies specialized in agriculture and health, plant protection and pest management - members of the Rodenticide Resistance Action Committee (RRAC) - presented a website where specialists can learn about the distribution of resistance conferring mutations and obtain recommendations for overcoming this problem in each specific case in the best possible way. Undoubtedly of interest are the studies of SGARs in terms of their histochemical activity. For example, it is shown that the toxicity of brodifacoum is not only causing bleeding disorder. This drug causes immunohistochemical abnormalities in the tissues of the rat spleen, including changes in the structure and number of T lymphocytes. The SGARs are known to be not only highly toxic to rodents, but also can be accumulated in the body of some carnivorous mammals (polecats, martens, ermines, foxes, etc.), scavengers and birds of prey, including rare and protected species. A number of presentations were devoted to direct effects of eaten rodents poisoned by anticoagulants on the population and physiological state of predators and also to indirect effects of rodent control measures on the rodents’ abundance and, as a consequence, on changes in the food base of predators. Such studies are extremely important both for nature protection and for reducing the risk associated with the use of SGARs. The composition of all SGAR substances includes two stereoisomers, one of which has a lower persistence (the ability to persist in the environment: water, soil, animals). Monitoring and modification of drugs with a predominant use of this isomer is a strategy to reduce the risk to non-target species. The efficiency of baits against rodents depends not only on the toxicity of the substances, but also the quality of the food base. Additives that suppress the growth of mold and reduce spoilage under high humidity and temperature, contribute to improve the effectiveness of rodent control measures In some cases, the methods of catching rodents by traps have been proposed as an alternative to rodenticides. The traps were set up in lines along the barriers guiding the movement of rodents. The high efficiency of catching rodents is combined with the apparent reduction in risks, due to the reduced use of rodenticides. The issues of ecology and microevolution of rodents are also reflected in the reports of the conference participants. One of the central problems was the co-evolution of the pathogen and its host. The influence of environmental factors on the structure and dynamics of numbers of both the host and its pathogen is shown using the example of the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) and Puumala hantavirus. Particular attention was paid to the need for integration of ecological and genetic data for a deep understanding of not only evolutionary processes, but also patterns of pathogen distribution or mechanisms of resistance development, as well as interaction and dynamics of natural pest populations. The problems of rodent population dynamics in forest ecosystems, including the use of available weather data to predict rodent outbreaks based on long-term series are considered. The close relationship between weather conditions, productivity of trees (oak, beech, pine, rowan, etc.) and forest rodent population dynamics is shown. The problem of reforestation and the influence vole activity under snow cover on the survival of young tree plantations was discussed. Issues of regulation of bird numbers were discussed: methods of catching, scaring, including using chemical repellents. This is true for typical urban inhabitants: passerines, corvids, pigeons and doves, and also inhabitants of steppes and forests, causing significant damage to agricultural crops. Some representatives of birds among the invasive species, for example, the Monk Parakeets or calita (Myiopsitta monachus), whose native origin is South America, extend their areal. The Monk Parakeets have been living in Europe for the last 140 years, reaching a high abundance in some regions. For example, in Spain the abundance of this species reaches 20,000 birds, in the southeast of England - up to 100,000. In Israel, a method is proposed to limit the number of birds by treating eggs in nests by applying vegetable oil, such as olive or sunflower, to the surface of the shell. The termination of the access of air to the inside of the egg, resulting in clogged pores, leads to the death of the embryo. Many vertebrates are natural reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, micromycetes. These animals require control measures decreasing their numbers, for example, synanthropic species such as brown and black rats (Rattus sp.), house mice (Mus musculus), and voles (Myodes sp. and Microtus sp.). In the last years, some wild animal species - fox (Vulpes vulpes), racoon (Procyon lotor), mustelids (family Mustelidae), rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), coypu (Myocastor coypus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) - have actively begun to colonize not only rural areas, but also cities. The question of how to deal with such invaders is still open. On the one hand, such invaders enrich the urban fauna, many of them have become an integral part of the urban landscape, on the other hand, there is a danger of introducing a number of pathogens and the emergence of anthropogenic foci of zoonosis. There have already been noted the cases of African plague in wild boars, viral hepatitis E in rabbits, and foxes have always been the main hosts of rabies. The role of large predators (including wolf Canis lupus) in ecosystems is also important: their presence in the habitats of red deer leads to the elimination of sick and weakened animals, controls the number of ungulates and reduces their negative impact on reforestation (at high densities, ungulates, eating young bark, can greatly damage the undergrowth and young planting of tree species). Participants also discussed about effective methods for deer damage mitigation. In one study, scientists analyzed the effect of additional winter-feeding on deer damage mitigation in three mountain regions. Supplementary feeding was effective only in regions, where red deer density and the level of damages was the highest People learn to coexist with wild animals, despite obvious inconveniences: damage to plantings, collisions with people, pets and vehicles. The conference raised the issues of the need for international and cross-sectoral cooperation for effective control of problematic species. In particular, the coypu population control (Myocastor coypus) in Europe - an invasive species from South America - needs concerted all EU countries actions. The European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), concerned with the issues of pest control and risk assessment, and realizing that effective species management is impossible without as much information on the state of populations as possible, allocated money for a 6-year program to obtain and harmonize data on number and distribution of various animal species, including carnivores, ungulates, lagomorphs and rodents in Europe. The materials in English can be found at: http://www.evpmc.org/abstract-book or http: //www.пест-менеджмент.рф/htdocs/pkrf/streszczenia.pdf