Pest-Management # 2 (110)/2019
Population bases for management of small mammals
Shchipanov N. A.,
A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow
An overview of the main approaches to the description and modeling of population process is given. The functioning of local populations is considered as an alternative: control vs. recovery. Taking into account the possibilities and mechanisms for changing the function, species can be combined into three groups with expected demographic patterns, predictable negative consequences of control, with prognoses of resistance to impacts and the rates of recovery of populations.
Keywords: small mammals, population, functional structure.
Infection of geogelminthesis of soil in Astrakhan region
Arakelyan R. S. - 1, Shendo G. L. - 2, Salina Yu. B. - 3, Saltereeva S. R. - 1, Nikeshina T. V. - 1, Yatsenko A. S. - 1, Nigdyrova A. V. - 1, Kovalenko A. I. - 4
1 - Astrakhan State Medical University
2 - Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Astrakhan Region
3 - Center of agrochemical service «Astrakhan»
4 - Stavropol State Medical University
Annotation. The authors in their article analyze the soil samples studied, studied in the laboratories of the agrochemical and sanitary services of the Astrakhan region, as well as their own research. So, from 2014 to June 2019. 6291 samples of the soil were studied, of which 432 samples did not meet the sanitary and parasitological indicators, the incidence rate was 6.9%.
Keywords: soil, strongylides, roundworm, toxocars, eggs and helminth larvae, bottom sediments.
Emergent zoonoses associated with bats
Makarov V. V., Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, email@example.com, FGAU VO Peoples' Friendship University of Russia; Oleg Yuryevich Barsukov, veterinarian; Yury Ivanovich Barsukov, Candidate of Veterinary Sciences, FGBU Center for Veterinary Medicine
The category of emergent infections includes more than 300 new, radically changing stereotypes or re-emergent especially dangerous, socially and economically significant nosoforms of the animal and human. The release of pathogens beyond the established natural host – pathogen – environment symbiosis occurs primarily as a result of direct or synergistic destructive anthropogenic activities on a global scale and provokes extreme problems of veterinary and humane medicine. Traffic pathogens with vector of natural reservoirs – domestic animals, man is accompanied by phenomena that are unusual for orthodox epidemiology, such as post-reserve amplification of infection, index cases, and offsystem morbidity of the spill over type. Demonstrative examples of emergent phenomena are viral zoonoses natural reservoirs that serve populations of bats there is new to the science and practice of diseases Hendra and Nipah, Severe Acute and the Middle East Respiratory Syndromes, Marburg- and Ebolaviruse diseases the occurrence of which in the turn of the century was accompanied by extraordinary disasters on human and veterinary medicine as well as lyssavirus infections.
Keywords: infectious diseases, emergence, zoonoses, bats.
Actual issues of tick-borne encephalitis prevention in subjects of the Russian Federation at the present stage
Alexey Yakovlevich Nikitin 1, Doctor of Biology, Evgeny Ivanovich Andaev 1, Doctor of Medicine,
Alexey Kimovich Noskov 1, Doctor of Medicine, Natalya Davydovna Pakskina 2,
Sergei Vladimirovich Balakhonov 1, Doctor of Medicine, Professor
1 - Irkutsk Antiplague Scientific Research Institute for Siberia and Far East, Rospotrebnadzor,
664047, Irkutsk, Trilissera str.
2 - Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing
(Rospotrebnadzor), 127994, Moscow, 18 Vadkovsky per., Bld. 5 and 7.
Tick-borne viral encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most significant natural focal infections in Russia. The disease is registered in 43-53 subjects, where about 60-70 millions people are at risk of infection. The purpose of this message is to analyze the dynamics and effectiveness of controlled factors affecting the TBE. The materials of state accounting «Information on infectious and parasitic diseases», real-time monitoring data of Rospotrebnadzor institutions in the country's regions are used. Long-term changes in vaccination volumes, seroprophylaxis, acaricidal treatments, modern approaches to protection against tick bites are considered. TBE vaccination coverage of the population is increasing, and cases of the disease are registered mostly among unvaccinated people. However, the rate of 95% the risk of contingent immunization is not achieved in endemic regions; in some of them up to 20% of vaccinatedpeople get sick; there are no data on the number of vaccinations required throughout life. Until now, seroprophylaxis is not carried out in all subjects etiotropically that, along with vaccination, has a negative effect on the human immune system. Until now, not all subjects seroprevention spend causal, that, along with the vaccine has a negative effect on the immune system of people. Volumes of acaricidal treatments in the federal districts of the country are increasing. At the beginning of the XXI century, the practice of autumn acaricidal treatment was discontinued, as it lost its meaning with the transition to use of low-persistent insectoacaricides. It became apparent that re-treatments were not necessary because of their poor quality, but were the inevitable result of the use of pyrethroid and organophosphorus compounds.This practice negatively affects non-target fauna; requires the attraction of significant labor and financial resources; in addition, it still has not led to a decrease in the number of tick. However, only non-specific prevention measures, including the use of costumes, preventing arthropods biting, provide protection not only from TBE, but also from other tick-borne infections. The results of a comparative analysis of factors aimed at reducing the incidence confirm the feasibility of their integrated risk-based application for the prevention of TBE in theregions.
Key words: tick-borne viral encephalitis, vaccination, seroprophylaxis, acaricidal treatments, individual protection from suction.
Protection of children from ixodid ticks’ attacks
Yanina Dmitrievna Yankovskaya - 1, Natalia Igorevna Shashina - 2, Doctor of Biology
1 - N. I. Pirogov Medical University of the Ministry
of Health of Russia, ul. Ostrovityanova, 1, 117997, Moscow, Russia
2 - Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute of Pospotrebnadzor, Nauchny pr., 18, Moscow, 117246
Prevention of natural focal infections, that pathogens are transmitted during bloodsucking of Ixodid ticks, is an urgent public health problem in the Russian Federation. One of the main features of these infections is the variety of pathogens, their ability to co-exist in one tick and cause mixed infection in humans. The protection of children, as well as the entire population, from ticks, carriers of pathogens of human dangerous diseases, should be directed simultaneously against the whole complex of pathogens that can be transmitted when the tick bloodsucking. When carrying out measures of non-specific prevention of tick-borne infections, great importance should be given to individual protection of children from ticks, taking into account the biology of ticks and the characteristics of children in different periods of their physical development. The analysis of sucking places by ticks to children who were hospitalized in the Moscow City Hospital No. 1 with a diagnosis of «tick-borne borreliosis» for the period 2010-2017 was carried out. An evaluation of behavior algorithmunderthe ixodid tick biting for 1243 patients hospitalized in the Moscow City Hospital No. 1 with a diagnosis of tick-borne tick-borne borreliosis in 2010-2017is made. Citizens' knowledge of ticks was assessed based on surveys in parks and social networks. The behavior of parents with children and children of different ages in the park areas of the city of Moscow is analyzed. The results formed the basis for recommendations on protecting children from ticks.
Key words: Ixodid ticks, tick-borne infections, non-specific prophylaxis
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Fedotov M. E., Dolinskaya I. V.
The target efficacy of a new insecticide « Fas-Duoble 2» in the form of dust for different species of arthropods was studied. Evaluated its toxicity, recommended safe modes of application specialists disclub and a population with specified conditions of use.
Key words: dust, contact activity, insects, rat mites, modes of application, precautions, effectiveness of treatments.
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