Pest-Management # (117)/2021
The history of studying of the ixodid tick with exoskelet’s anomalies and their role in tick-borne infections epidemiology
H.V. Dubinina 1, Y.A. Verzhutskaya 2, A.Ya. Nikitin 2
1 Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
2 Irkursk Research Antiplague Institute of the Rospotrebnadzor, Irkutsk, Russia; e-mail: email@example.com
This article is devoted to the extremely important problem – the spread of tick-borne infections and role of Ixodid tick with exoskelet’s anomalies in the incidence of tick-borne infections. In the 90s of the twentieth century, due to the increase in the abundance of representatives of the genus Ixodes and contacts of the population with them, the tickborne infections, become one of the most serious problems for public health in Russia and some of other countries of the world. Despite a decrease in the tick-borne encephalitis morbidity in the next two decades, the problem of prevention of tick-borne infections only escalated, due to expansion of area of a number of vector species and an increase in the duration of their seasonal activity under the influence of climate warming, as well as the detection and start of official registration of new nosoforms. This was especially evident in cities, where about a quarter of the population of Russia live under conditions of technogenic air pollution. The growth of the planet's population, the increase in the technical and energy armament of human has led to the observed changes in ecosystems and to their transformation.
The purpose of the review is to show how, using biological objects, to identify the "marks" of anthropogenic pressure on populations of Ixodid ticks, to assess the danger to humans, the presence in the habitat of the main vector species of the vector with different levels of intrapopulation polymorphism by morphological features of the body structure. The realization of such works will allow specialists to proactively identify territories and the magnitude of environmental pressure on the functioning of the tick's body as a carrier of pathogenic pathogens, thereby helping to reduce the likelihood of human infection.
Keywords. Ixodid tick, Ixodes, exoskelet’s anomalies, tick-borne infections epidemiology.
Pediculosis in Russia in the late XX century and early XXI century
Roslavtseva S. A., Federal Budgetary Scientific Institution «Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute» of Federal Service for Supervision on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, 117246, Moscow, Russian Federation
For correspondence: Svetlana A. Roslavtseva, Dr. Sci. Biol., head of the laboratory of disinsection problems of the Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Information about author:
Roslavtseva S.A., http://www.researcherid.com/rid/O-8624-2017; http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1684-2029il.ru
Pediculosis or lice is a specific parasitism on humans of three types of lice: body louse – Pediculis corporis de Geer, synonyms P. humanus humanus and R. vestimenti; head louse –P. humanus capitis de Geer; pubic louse or ploschitsa Phthyrus pubis L. The greatest epidemiological danger is the bode louse, the role of which has been proven epidemiologically and experimentally. It is a carrier of pathogens of typhoid epidemic and recurrent typhus, Brill's disease, Volyn fever. The head louse is considered as a possible carrier of pathogens of epidemic typhus and recurrent typhus. However, the role of this species is not completely clear. In the 90-ies of the XX century in Russia there was a sharp increase in the incidence of pediculosis in both adults and children The dynamics of the decrease in the number of persons infected with pediculosis in the period 1995–2018 was traced: in 1995 – 213; 2002 – 179; 2004 – 223; 2008 – 201. Since 2011, the rate of infection with pediculosis per 100 thousand people among all age groups (187) began to decline steadily: in 2015 it was 166, in 2016 – 145; in 2017 – 130 and in 2018 – 120. Starting in 1977, pyrethroids, primarily permethrin, were used to fight lice. Pediculicides based on permethrin have taken a leading position in the world and in Russia. In 2008 in the study of head and body lice collected from homeless people in Moscow, the first permethrinresistant individuals were identified and it was shown that lice resistance to permethrin is a widespread phenomenon. Permethrin-resistant individuals were found in 95–97% of micro-populations of body lice and in 100% of head lice collected from homeless individuals. The proportion of resistant individuals in each population varied from 8.7 to 100%. In 2009, 90.5% of pediculicides registered in Russia contained pyrethroids as an active substance, of which 71.4% were based on permethrin. In 2011, only on the basis of permethrin there were 65.7% of funds, and already 30% of funds were registered on the basis of Dimethicone; in 2013, new substances appeared for use as pediculicides to combat head pediculosis (mineral oils; benzyl benzoate, neem oil, 1,2-octandiol). When taking into account the diversity of pediculicidal agents registered in Russia at the end of 2019, it should be noted that there are no funds only on permethrin, an increase in funds on Dimethicone and other compaunds. The total number of registered pediculicides is 39 means.
Keywords: review, pediculosis, head, body and pubic lice, resistance, DDT, organophosphates, pyrethroids, permethrin, dimethicon, essential oils, mineral oils, benzyl benzoate.
Methodical approaches to rapid assessment of the number of phenolic substances in the disinfection means and the flushes chromatographic techniques
Nosikova L. A., Kochetov A. N.
Nosikova L.A., Ph.D. (Chemistry), senior researcher A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences(IPCE RAS), (31, Leninsky Pr, Moscow, 119991, Russia); associate professor M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies, Russia Technological University (86, Vernadskogo Pr., Moscow, 119571, Russia), Email: email@example.com., ResearcherID 679715.
Kochetov A. N., Ph. D. (Chemistry), research engineer A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPCE RAS), (31, Leninsky Pr, Moscow, 119991, Russia); Senior Lecturer, A.N. Reformatsky Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, M. V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies, MIREA – Russian Technological University (86, Vernadskogo Pr., Moscow 119571, Russia). E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ResearcherID: 213376.
The relevance of phenol derivatives as disinfection substances acquires new aspects due to the possibility of rapid deployment of their production at enterprises not previously involved in the deindustry. In conditions of quarantine and / or inability to supply imported substances, aspects of production and comprehensive control of substances become priority. In this paper, the possibilities of analytical determination of disinfectants of phenol derivatives are considered. The possibility of joint determination of five (HPLC method) and six (GC method) derivatives of this series in model solutions simulating the whole range of substances, disinfectants, working solutions and washes containing titular derivatives is shown. The phase variant of HPLC in the isocratic mode (UVdetection) and GC (flame ionization detection) with the involvement of trivial analytical equipment were used. Alternatively, the possibilities of determination using spectrophotometry methods are considered. Based on the literature data and experimental results, it is worth noting that it is more productive to analyze the entire line of analytes in isopropanol/water by chromatographic methods, preferring HPLC due to the greater sensitivity of the latter. At the same time, sample preparation is reduced to solubilization of substance overhangs, ready-made agents or working solutions in isopropanol/water. Chromatographic analysis (HPLC) optimally used in the eluant systems based on acetonitrile, providing the correct definition (λ = 280 nm) of phenol with the minimum concentrations. The GC method has slightly higher performance and significantly lower cost of analysis, but the sensitivity of such a determination is significantly lower (the difference reaches values of almost two orders of magnitude).
Keywords: phenolic derivatives, GC, RP-HPLC, triclosan, tinosan, 2-phenoxyethanol, phenol, antiseptics, disinfectants, control of working solutions, production control, control swabs, disinfection substance.
About moth family (Pyralidae) pest control in the food industry
V. V. Shcherbakov. Expert-biologist, project manager of PMCenter LLC Moscow
I. V. Tolstov. Expert-biologist, l eading employee of PMCenter LLC Moscow
Long-term monitoring data considering Pyralidae fam. pests at food processing facilities have been analyzed. Acceleration of Plodia Interpunctella Hb adaptation to the conditions of the art-natural environment in the conditions of Central Russia north of 50 degrees north latitude is observed. At the same time, a decrease in the indoor pressure of Pl.Int. and a proportional increase in the presence of closely related species were recorded. Possible transformations of the Pl.Int. development cycle at the diapause stage and possibilities of emergence of new trophody-namics are discussed. Recommendations are given on pyralid moths control strategies in a new setting.
Keywords: Plodia Interpunctella, insect diapause, confectionary, pyralid moth, pest control, pheromones.