Pest‑Management #4 (124)/2022
Infections as an emergent danger of biological populations and species
V.V. Makarov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor
FSBI Center for Veterinary Medicine, 129344, Moscow, st. Pilot Babushkina, 20
FSAEI of HE Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 117198, Moscow, st. Miklukho-Maklaya, 6
The animal world as a bioecological community is extremely vulnerable to the risks caused by trivial infections. The purpose of this work is to assess the world situation on the most significant infectious diseases that pose a real threat to biological populations and species in the context of the problem of biological conservation. Avian influenza, chronic wasting disease of deer, koalas retroviral immunodeficiency, Tasmanian devil facial tumor, shrimp white spot syndrome, amphibian chytridiomycosis, white nose syndrome of bat, morbillivirus plague of pinnipeds, ebolavirus disease of gorillas, West Nile fever of crows, Newcastle disease of pigeons are analyzed according to the most important ecological and epidemiological parameters. The most general causes of emergence as a phenomenon characterizing the current period of modern history are discussed.
Keywords: biological populations, species, biodiversity, infections, emergence.
Sand fly of the black sea coast of the Crimean Peninsula
Baranets M.S., сandidate of medical sciences,
N.F. Gamaleya National Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, 123098, Moscow, Gamalei 18.
An entomological survey was carried out in 19 settlements along the black sea coast of the Crimean Peninsula (from Sevastopol to Feodosia). Sand fly were found in 12 collection points and belonged to 5 species of Phlebotomus perfliewi, Ph. neglectus, Ph. longiductus, Ph. similis, Ph. Papatasi. Sand fly were nonuniformly distributed over the coastal areas of Crimea. Ph. perfiliewi and Ph. neglectus were the prevalent species on the on the Crimean Peninsula (94,7 and 95,8% respectively), these species are found throughout the study area and in all biotopes. Other species were caught in small numbers in closed biotopes only. The species identification of 4 species (are confirmed vectors of visceral leishmaniasis and sandfly fever in other endemic countries) was confirmed by PCR (DNA barcoding). These species are 87–100% identical with species from countries endemic in VL and ML by BLAST analysis of sequenced fragments. Can be new cases of VL and pappataci fever on the Crimean Peninsula. There is a threat of new ones for this territory of sand flyborne diseases.
Keywords: Crimean Peninsula, sand flys, entomological survey, DNA barcoding, visceral leishmaniasis, sandfly fevers.
Effect of entomopathogenic fungi - producers of biopreparations on predatory bugs and predatory mites and the prospects for their combined application against sucking pests in greenhouses
Mitina G.V., PhD, Pazyuk I.M., PhD, Krasavina L.P., PhD, Trapeznikova O.V., PhD, firstname.lastname@example.org, Choglokova A.A.,
All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection (FSBSI VIZR),
Russia, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Podbelskogo shosse, 3.
In laboratory experiments it was shown that the predatory bugs Orius laevigatus can transfer the fungal spores of Lеcanicillium after contact with mycelium caused infection of the peach aphid M. persicae. Mortality of aphids reached for different strains from 51 to 100% on the 7th day. A significant reduction in the longevity of the adult bugs that transferred spores was found. Infection of O. laevigatus after contact with spores has been confirmed in a single case only. In a trial conducted in a commercial greenhouse on rose plants at combined application of Lеcanicillium muscarium spores (strain G-033 VIZR) and predator mite Amblyseius swirskii against greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum an additive effect was shown. The application of L. muscarium sporal suspension 5х107 spores/ml followed by the release of A. swirskii suppressed all stages of T. vaporariorum more effectively than either of the biological control agents when applied separately. The spores did not effect negatively on the predator.
Keywords: compatibility of biological control agents, Lecanicillium, beneficials, Amblyseius swirskii, Orius laevigatus
The use of diatomites and marshalites as insecticides to control bedbugs and cockroaches
Krivonos K. S., email@example.com
Federal Scientific Center of Hygiene named after F.F. Erisman of Rospotrebnadzor
Insecticidal activity of samples of diatomites from various Russian mineral deposits on the common bed bug Cimex lectularius and the German cockroach Blattella germanica was studied.
Keywords: diatomite, insecticidal efficacy, bed bugs, German cockroach
Aspects of production and control of microcapsulated insecticidal compositions. Part III. Modeling of formulations based on thiamethoxam to combat multi-resistant cultures
Nosikova L.A.1,2, Kochetov A.N. 1,2, Lvovsky A.I.1, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
1 M. V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies, MIREA – Russian Technological University (86, Vernadskogo Pr., Moscow, 119571, Russia
2 Center for collective use «Instrumental chemical analysis and complex research of substances and materials»
Corresponding author e-mail: email@example.com
The possibilities of creating formulations of microcapsulated drugs based on several active substances capable of overcoming resistance to one or more active substances of different classes are considered. Screening of compositions based on a neonicotinoid insecticide, thiamethoxam, was carried out. Additional ingredients were insecticides of representatives of the phenyl pyrazolo new group (fipronil), and pyrethroid series (alpha-cypermethrin), as well as synergist (piperonyl butoxide). The proposed formulations were tested by biocontrol methods for residual effect. Analytical determination of the considered compositions was carried out by the method of HPLC. When designing microcapsules of model compositions, animal lipids (total egg lipids) were used as capsulizers. On model solutions of four derivatives, the limits of group determination and the limit of quantitative determination of substances are established.
Keywords: microcapsulated agents, insecticidal substances, content determination, pest control, active substance, pyrethroids, organophosphorus derivatives, neonicotinoids, phenylpyrazolones, RP HPLC, thiamethoxam, fipronil, alphacypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide
Requirements (including license requirements) to ensure safety when working with pesticides
Baranova L.I., educational and methodical department
L.I., Federal State Budgetary Institution «All-Russian Center for Plant Quarantine» (FSBI «VNIIKR»),
140150, Moscow region, Ramenskoye R.P. Bykovo, Pogranichnaya str., 32, Russian Federation
In order to protect human health and the environment, the legislation of the Russian Federation establishes mandatory requirements to the conditions and procedures of pesticide use. Compliance with these requirements completely eliminates or minimizes the risk of adverse effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. At the same time, the effectiveness of pesticide use is ensured. Quarantine phytosanitary disinfection, which is disinfestation of products of plant origin and storage and production facilities from quarantine pests, can be carried out only by those legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, who have a license for such disinfestation. Knowledge and ability to apply in practice the rules of working with pesticides, including their storage, transportation and disposal, is a guarantee against emergencies at the treatment facilities.
Keywords: safe use of pesticides.