Pest-Management # 3 (119)/2021
Sawtoothed grain beetle (oryzaephilus surinamensis linnaeus) and human ecology
Scientific Research Disifectology Institute. Moscow 117246, Russian Federation
Sawtoothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus) is widely distributed throughout the world. It is one of the dangerous pests of agricultural and food products. In addition to the harm caused to agriculture, the sawtoothed grain beetle is also dangerous for human health. As a way to fight against this pest, the use of insecticidal agents and ionizing radiation are proposed.
Keywords: Sawtoothed grain beetle, pests of grain stocks, allergies, infections, human health, insecticide, ionizing radiation.
Pediculosis in Russia in the late XX century and early XXI century
Federal Budgetary Scientific Institution «Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute» of Federal Service for Supervision on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, 117246, Moscow, Russian Federation
For correspondence: Svetlana A. Roslavtseva, Dr. Sci. Biol., head of the laboratory of disinsection problems of the Scientific Research Disinfectology Institute, e‑mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Information about author:
Roslavtseva S.A., http://www.researcherid.com/rid/O‑8624‑2017; http://orcid.org/0000‑0003‑1684‑2029il.ru
Pediculosis or lice is a specific parasitism on humans of three types of lice: body louse – Pediculis corporis de Geer, synonyms P. humanus humanus and R. vestimenti; head louse – P. humanus capitis de Geer; pubic louse or ploschitsa Phthyrus pubis L. The greatest epidemiological danger is the bode louse, the role of which has been proven epidemiologically and experimentally. It is a carrier of pathogens of typhoid epidemic and recurrent typhus, Brill's disease, Volyn fever. The head louse is considered as a possible carrier of pathogens of epidemic typhus and recurrent typhus. However, the role of this species is not completely clear. In the 90‑ies of the XX century in Russia there was a sharp increase in the incidence of pediculosis in both adults and children The dynamics of the decrease in the number of persons infected with pediculosis in the period 1995–2020. Starting in 1977, pyrethroids, primarily permethrin, were used to fight lice. In 2008 in the study of head and body lice collected from homeless people in Moscow, the first permethrin‑resistant individuals were identified and it was shown that lice resistance to permethrin is a widespread phenomenon. Permethrin‑resistant individuals were found in 95–97% of micro‑populations of body lice and in 100% of head lice collected from homeless individuals. In 2011, only on the basis of permethrin there were 65,7% of funds, and already 30% of funds were registered on the basis of Dimethicone; in 2013, new substances appeared for use as pediculicides to combat head pediculosis (mineral oils; benzyl benzoate, neem oil, 1,2‑octandiol).
Keywords: review, pediculosis, head, body and pubic lice, resistance, DDT, organophosphates, pyrethroids, permethrin, dimethicon, essential oils, mineral oils, benzyl benzoate.
The relevance of restrictions in the use of rodenticide concentrates for plant protection of unprotected soil
A. A. Yakovlev,
Researcher, Candidate of Biological Sciences, expert on rodenticides, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution " All‑Russian Scientific Research Institute of Plant Protection" (FGBNU VIZR)
LLC "Innovative Center for Plant Protection" (LLC ICR)
The safety of rodenticides, as the most dangerous of the pesticides, depends on the dosage forms used, regulations and application technologies. The most difficult thing is to observe the safety conditions when using concentrates, from which rodenticide baits are made in the conditions of farms with the use of grain. Such preparations are most dangerous for non‑target warm‑blooded animals, for which grain is an attractive feed. Of the 24 chemical rodenticides for unprotected soil, only 5 are concentrated preparations. Consequently, in the Russian Federation there is a sufficient range of the least dangerous rodenticides (pellets, briquettes, capsules). At the same time, the intensification of production and the increase in the volume of protective treatments leads to an increase in the number of non‑targeted poisoning. All this is a justification for limiting the use of rodenticide concentrates to the conditions of storage of stocks and protected soil, while excluding the use of such preparations for plant protection in unprotected soil.
Keywords: rodenticide concentrates, justification for the prohibition of the use of unprotected soil in plant protection.
Harmonization of methods for the analysis of disinfectants based on substances of guanidine derivatives and quaternary ammonium compounds
Nosikova L.A., Kochetov A.N.
Nosikova L.A., Ph.D. (Chemistry), senior researcher A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPCE RAS), (31, Leninsky Pr, Moscow, 119991, Russia); associate professor M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies, MIREA – Russian Technological University (86, Vernadskogo Pr., Moscow, 119571, Russia), E ‑ mail : email@example.com., Researher ID 679715. ORCID ID 0000‑0002‑4144‑5343
Kochetov A.N., Ph.D. (Chemistry),research engineer A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPCE RAS), (31, LeninskyPr, Moscow, 119991, Russia); associate professor, A.N. Reformatskychair of inorganic chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Institute of Fine Chemical Technologies, MIREA – Russian Technological University (86, Vernadskogo Pr., Moscow 119571, Russia), E ‑ mail : firstname.lastname@example.org., ResearherID 213376. ORCIDID 0000‑0002‑1911‑1718.
The regulatory and technical documentation for the analysis of quaternary ammonium compounds and guanidine derivatives is currently represented by a wide range of methods, including both outdated and, conversely, extremely complex in terms of instrumentation, exotic and expensive methods, such as NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry or the use of rare indicators and even precious metal nanoparticles that are difficult to access. The paper considers a large range of methodological approaches for the analysis of title substances, including their joint presence. New groups of these derivatives are regularly synthesized, and recently the emphasis has shifted towards oligomeric structures that are copolymers of the derivatives under consideration. Apparently, it is the departure towards the use of compositions from several homologues that is the most promising direction from the point of view of maximum efficiency. The path of searching for a highly active individual substance showing high bactericidal activity is very complex and has not led to success since the middle of the last century, giving way to compositions of homologues – cheaper and with an expanded spectrum of action. The use of such compositions requires that the method of their analysis allows determining individual homologs, significantly complicating the method of analysis, while the activity of such derivatives that are similar in structure does not differ much, which devalues information about the individual composition. It seems more rational to use not highly selective chromatographic approaches, but, on the contrary, group titrimetric methods adapted to the joint analysis of not only individual derivatives, but also copolymers or composites based on natural raw materials. Titrimetric methods are extremely robust, cheap and available to a wide range of research laboratories.
Keywords: QAС, titrimetry, spectrophotometry, disinfectants, reverse–phase HPLC, guanidine derivatives, PGMG, PGMBG, chlorhexidine bigluconate, disinfecting substances, myristamed, octenidine, copolymers.