Pest-Management # 2 (126)/2023
Development of views on the controlling the abundance of carriers and vectors of plague on the territory of Russia and neighboring countries
Matrosov A.N., Doctor of Biological Sciences
FGHI “Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute “Microbe”, Saratov, Russian Federation
The overview covers development stages of the concept for the control over abundance of carriers and vectors of plague - one of the main areas of prophylaxis of this particularly dangerous zoonotic infection. The contribution of domestic researchers to the study of plague enzootics on the territory of Russia and neighboring states, which is the basis for the development of tactics and methodology for the control of rodents and fleas, is outlined. The bases of formation of deratization and disinfestation practices in natural and anthropourgic foci of plague are traced chronologically. The role of these measures in the complex prophylaxis of plague as one of the most radical ones in the suppression of epizootics and human case prevention in the foci of Russia and the CIS countries is highlighted. Modern ideas about planning and conducting anti-epidemic treatments in epizootic areas located around settlements of all types are substantiated. The necessity of organizing and implementing extermination measures taking into account environmental aspects is emphasized. Currently, rodenticide treatments are not carried out in natural biotopes in relation to valuable commercial, narrowareal and rare species of carriers. Only community deratization against synanthropic and hemi-synanthropic rodent species is performed in epidemic foci and if there is a threat of their emergence. The main focus of extermination measures is on insecticidal treatments in natural and anthropourgic foci. The use of modern means and methods of disinsection makes it possible to suppress and eliminate plague epizootics, to prevent infection of the population in the foci.
Keywords: plague foci, carriers, vectors, deratization, disinsection.
Pediculosis: the current state of the problem
Lopatina Yu.V., PhD in Biological Science
Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, Russian Federation; Institute of Disinfectology Federal
Scientific Center for Hygiene named after F. F. Erisman of Rospotrebnadzor, Moscow, Nauchny proezd, 18, Russian Federation
Louse infestation is one of the commonest parasite-related public health problems worldwide. The incidence of louse infestation in the Russian Federation for 2001-2020 has been analyzed. The general trend towards a decrease in the incidence is shown both in children under 14 years of age and in the population as a whole. The a ssortment of pediculicides and the incidence of children with head pediculosis are compared. Data from the monitoring of lice resistance to insecticides conducted in 2019-2022 indicate that the resistance to permethrin of head and body lice remains at a high level. Methods of resistance overcoming are considered with the help of pediculicides having other mechanism of action compared to pyrethroids.
Keywords: pediculosis, morbidity, Pediculus humanus, insecticide resistance.
On the herpetological pest management methodology: legal and bioethical aspects
Semenov D.V., Ph.D. (Biol.)
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAN, Lewinsky pr., 33, Moscow, Russian Federation
Amphibians and reptiles are part of wildlife and are subject to relevant legislation. The approaches to herpetological pest management, taking into account the legal rules and principles of modern bioethics, are considered.
Keywords: amphibians and reptiles, pest management, environmental legislation, bioethics
The place of pest control in the food safety management system
LLC «Food safety and standards», 141109, Shchelkovo, ul. Talsinskaya 26, sq.4, Russian Federation
The food safety management system consists of a large number of elements, and pest control, as one of these elements, is often given little attention. Thus, enterprises make mistakes that are revealed in the process of food safety audits: pest risks are not considered at all stages of production in HACCP Plan, monitoring and extermination measures are not effective and economically inefficient, since preventive measures are not properly carried out - prerequisite programmes, which exclude/restrict the access of the pest and the availability of food, water, shelter. Failure to comply with these requirements leads to the removal of pest risk to a critical control point (CCP) when drawing up a HACCP Plan, which may entail additional financial costs for monitoring CCP.
Keywords: pest-control, prerequisite programmes, pest-risk, HACCP.
Method for evaluating the effectiveness of repellents when applied to the skin against ixodid ticks
Ushakova E.V., Ahmetshina M.B.
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Akhmetemail@example.com
Institute of Disinfectology Federal Scientific Center for Hygiene named after F. F. Erisman of Rospotrebnadzor,
Moscow, Nauchny proezd, 18, Russian Federation
A method has been proposed to estimate the repellent effect of repellents on human skin against different species of ticks that carry dangerous diseases. For the first time, comparative studies of the repellent effect of various substances on ticks of the genera Ixodes and Deracentor were carried out. the experiments were performed under natural and laboratory conditions on ticks of mixed sex. The experiments showed that modern repellents when attacking humans are more effective against ticks Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus compared to Ixodes persulcatus.
Keywords: repellents, Ixodid ticks, N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide, Saltidin, IR3535